By George Aaron Broadwell BA MA PhD
This ebook is the main accomplished reference grammar of Choctaw, an American Indian language spoken by way of nearly 11 thousand humans situated essentially in Mississippi and Oklahoma. according to nineteen years of box paintings with audio system of the Mississippi and Oklahoma dialects and greater than one hundred fifty years of written Choctaw fabric, A Choctaw Reference Grammar comprises the main whole description thus far of the morphology of the language in addition to an intensive therapy of word constitution, notice order, case marking, and complementation.The Choctaw tribe used to be divided into Oklahoma and Mississippi teams through the Indian elimination of the 1830s. at the present time nearly all of fluent audio system one of the Oklahoma Choctaws are greater than 40 years previous, and few teenagers converse the language. even if extra little ones one of the Mississippi Choctaws examine the language, the quantity is declining. simply because language is key to conserving the Choctaws’ lifestyle and either dialects of Choctaw are endangered, cautious documentation of the grammatical constitution of the language is significantly very important. Compiled through the best scholarly professional at the Choctaw language, George Aaron Broadwell, this quantity is either a realistic consultant to local audio system and an integral guide for linguists.
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Additional resources for A Choctaw Reference Grammar
In all citations from the Bible and catechism, I give the example in its original orthography in the text (marked by angled brackets) with my reconstruction of the phonemics and morphological segmentation on a following line. One difficulty is that a single Choctaw sentence in these materials may correspond to several independent sentences in the English translation. In citations of such material, lack of an initial capital letter or final punctuation mark shows that the Choctaw material has been taken from a longer passage.
3. Basic syntactic typology Choctaw is a configurational language with consistent head-final constituent ordering. It shows a mix of head-marking and dependentmarking patterns. This chapter gives an overview of the structure of simple sentences and discusses its place in syntactic typology. 1. 1. Sentences with only third person arguments The simplest sentences in Choctaw consist of a verb plus a tense marker, as in the following examples: (1) Qba-tok. rain-FT 'It rained. ' (2) Niya-h. ' (3) Pisa-tok.
6. Causatives Choctaw has a productive morphological causative -chi, as shown in the following examples: (40) Nowa-lih. ' (41) Sa-nowa-chi-tok. ' Causatives are discussed in more detail in chapter 8. 7. Questions In general wh-questions may be formed by merely leaving an appropriate interrogative in situ. No special verbal morphology or word order is necessary: 38 CHOCTAW REFERENCE GRAMMAR (42) John-at katah-Q pisa-tok? ' katihmi-h (43) Hashshok is-sa-chgli-kat grass 2SI-lSIII-cut-C0MP:SShow:much-TNS is-sam-apiis-ahiina-h?
A Choctaw Reference Grammar by George Aaron Broadwell BA MA PhD