By Zygmunt Frajzyngier
Wandala is a hitherto undescribed relevant Chadic language spoken in Northern Cameroon and Northeastern Nigeria. The Grammar of Wandala describes, in a non-aprioristic process, phonology, morphology, syntax, and all practical domain names grammaticalized within the language. The grammatical constitution of Wandala is sort of diversified from the constitution of different Chadic languages defined up to now in either the formal capacity and the capabilities which were grammaticalized. The grammar offers proofs for the postulated hypotheses referring to kinds and services. The grammar is written in a mode obtainable to linguists operating inside of diverse theoretical frameworks.
The phonology is characterised through a wealthy consonantal procedure, a 3 vowel method, and a tone procedure. The language has plentiful vowel insertion principles and a vowel concord procedure. Vowel deletion marks phrase-internal place, and vowel-insertion marks phrase-final place. the 2 ideas let the parsing of the clause into components. The language has 3 different types of reduplication of verbs, of which code aspectual and modal differences. The unfavourable paradigms of verbs vary from affirmative paradigms within the coding of subject.
The pronominal affixes and large approach of verbal extensions code the grammatical and semantic relatives in the clause. Wandala has strange clausal constitution, in that during a pragmatically impartial verbal clause, there's just one nominal argument, both the topic or the article. those arguments can stick with numerous ingredients. The grammatical function of that argument is coded by means of inflectional markers at the verb and so much curiously, on no matter what lexical or grammatical morpheme precedes the constituent. The markers of grammatical family members extra to verbs are assorted for various sessions of verbs.
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Wandala is a hitherto undescribed crucial Chadic language spoken in Northern Cameroon and Northeastern Nigeria. The Grammar of Wandala describes, in a non-aprioristic technique, phonology, morphology, syntax, and all practical domain names grammaticalized within the language. The grammatical constitution of Wandala is sort of varied from the constitution of alternative Chadic languages defined so far in either the formal skill and the features which have been grammaticalized.
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Wandala
In addition to the above assistants, other speakers of Wandala helped over shorter time periods (one or two days). All language assistants displayed great patience and understanding, for which I am most thankful. The identification of plants mentioned in the grammar was done either directly, when I happened to know the name (very few cases), or indirectly, through the name of the plant in Fula. I used Tourneaux and Daïrou 1998 to The sources and the nature of the data 23 identify the plants whose names I obtained in Fula.
Underlying u Mirt claims that the vowel [u] is an allophone of schwa occurring in the environment of velar and sometimes bilabial consonants. Given that schwa is not considered an underlying vowel in the present work, a different approach is required. : hùɗè ‘belly’, ɗùksá ‘thing’, ʃúlà ‘travel’. In this position, the vowel u is in contrast with the vowels a and i. As it is in contrastive distribution, it must be postulated to be underlying. The vowel u also occurs, albeit rarely, in word-final position: ŋázù ‘that which’.
1 plus the velar continuant x, palatal nasal ɲ, palatalized stops, palatalized fricatives and lateral continuants, glottalized consonants, and liquids, represented as b’, d’, g’, k’, f’, ɬ’, ɮ’ and l’, ɓ’, and ɗ‘. The palatalized variants occur before the palatal glide y. The palatalization of consonants, being fully predictable, is not further marked throughout this grammar. The palatal underlying segments are represented as py, dy, ɗy, ky, gy, and ɠy. Consonantal system 25 There are two tests of mono-segmental rather than cluster status of complex consonants.
A Grammar of Wandala by Zygmunt Frajzyngier