By Carol S. Leonard
This booklet examines the heritage of reforms and significant country interventions affecting Russian agriculture: the abolition of serfdom in 1861, the Stolypin reforms, the NEP, the Collectivization, Khrushchev reforms, and at last farm company privatization within the early Nineteen Nineties. It exhibits a trend rising from a political primary in imperial, Soviet, and post-Soviet regimes, and it describes how those reforms have been justified within the identify of the nationwide curiosity in the course of critical crises - speedy inflation, army defeat, mass moves, rural unrest, and/or political turmoil. It appears on the results of adversity within the monetary atmosphere for rural habit after reform and at long-run developments. It has chapters on estate rights, rural association, and technological switch. It offers a brand new database for measuring agricultural productiveness from 1861 to 1913 and updates those estimates to the current. This booklet is a examine of the rules geared toward reorganizing rural construction and their effectiveness in remodeling associations.
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Extra info for Agrarian Reform in Russia: The Road from Serfdom
1 Critically important for the evolution of secure property rights in Russia, the ﬁrst reform replaced usufruct with peasant ownership of allotment land, thus severing landlords’ sovereignty over the village and strengthening its governance unit, the Land Commune. Showing its conservative design, it made the nobles’ implementation of land redemption voluntary. 2 Forty-ﬁve years later, the Stolypin reforms ﬁnally allowed individual households to claim ownership and titles to allocated strips of land (nadel), to gather these strips into independent farms, and to dispense with the authority of the commune.
99 The effectiveness of agrarian reform will depend greatly on local traditions and historical factors. Such factors include, but are not limited to, the way a government approaches the reform process; the adequacy of budgetary resources and their expenditure on reconstruction; the ﬂexibility of available tax instruments; and the macroeconomic conditions in which reforms are begun. Russia’s relatively weak historical record in the sphere of agrarian reform shows the potential weight of these and other constraints.
Hoch (1991). Pintner (1984), p. 240. 34 Agrarian Reform in Russia By the mid-nineteenth century in Russia, as in most European countries, the revenue base grew chieﬂy by indirect taxation. Indirect taxes amounted to much more than half of all revenues, including from borrowing, yet they were conﬁning and conﬁscatory. They captured surpluses from the land, from the church, from luxury consumption by elites, including nobles and merchants, from credit rationing, and from extraordinary collections including recruitment.
Agrarian Reform in Russia: The Road from Serfdom by Carol S. Leonard