By Roberta Ulrich
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Additional info for American Indian Nations from Termination to Restoration, 1953-2006
The state tax commissioner, Harry Harder, told Watkins in the 1954 hearing, “The governor [then Walter J. ] is not opposed to termination. . 19 Verna Fowler was in the ﬁfth grade when the inexorable march toward termination began in 1953. Like many tribal children, she accompanied her parents to meetings of the General Council through her grade and high school years. She didn’t remember much about the discussions, she said in a 2001 interview in her ofﬁce at the College of the Menominee Nation, where she was president.
We have to do studies to ﬁnd out how to shift surplus labor,” Caldwell said. ” Caldwell said it would be no different from potato growers and other farmers getting subsidies. Watkins said he favored taking away as many subsidies as possible, although subsidies for defense were all right if they were necessary. As for those farm subsidies, they could be justiﬁed by the country’s need for food. ”32 The June 1953 tribal resolution called for selection of a planning ofﬁcer. The council met September 14 to elect a person to that new position, but the bia did not approve the selection, and the job was not ﬁlled.
Of 1,226 adult tribal members polled, 889 had ﬁnished the eighth grade, 328 had graduated from high school, and 9 had ﬁnished college. 14 Nor was the tribe organized for effective self-government. Most decisions were made by the General Council, composed of all adult tribal members. An advisory council handled business between General Council meetings, but it had no administrative functions or staff. It had won the right to approve the budget for tribal operations in 1934 and used that power to inﬂuence — and sometimes remove — bia managers.
American Indian Nations from Termination to Restoration, 1953-2006 by Roberta Ulrich