Read e-book online American Indian Nations from Termination to Restoration, PDF

By Roberta Ulrich

ISBN-10: 0803233647

ISBN-13: 9780803233645

When the U.S. executive ended its dating with dozens of local American tribes and bands among 1953 and 1966, it used to be conducting a tremendous social test. Congress enacted this system, referred to as termination, within the identify of “freeing” the Indians from govt regulations and enhancing their caliber of lifestyles. despite the fact that, removal the federal prestige of greater than 9 dozen tribes around the nation plunged lots of their approximately 13,000 contributors into deeper degrees of poverty and eroded the tribal people’s experience of local identification. starting in 1973 and lengthening over a twenty-year interval, the terminated tribes, one after the other, persuaded Congress to revive their ties to the government. still, quite a bit harm were performed that even at the present time the restored tribes fight to beat the issues created by means of these terminations a part century ago.
Roberta Ulrich presents a concise evaluation of all of the terminations and restorations of local American tribes from 1953 to 2006 and explores the long-lasting coverage implications for local peoples. this is often the 1st publication to think about the entire terminations and restorations within the 20th century as a part of carrying on with coverage whereas detailing a few of the person tribal alterations. Drawing from Congressional files, interviews with tribal individuals, and different fundamental assets, Ulrich delves into the explanations and results of termination and recovery from either sides.

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Additional info for American Indian Nations from Termination to Restoration, 1953-2006

Sample text

The state tax commissioner, Harry Harder, told Watkins in the 1954 hearing, “The governor [then Walter J. ] is not opposed to termination. . 19 Verna Fowler was in the fifth grade when the inexorable march toward termination began in 1953. Like many tribal children, she accompanied her parents to meetings of the General Council through her grade and high school years. She didn’t remember much about the discussions, she said in a 2001 interview in her office at the College of the Menominee Nation, where she was president.

We have to do studies to find out how to shift surplus labor,” Caldwell said. ” Caldwell said it would be no different from potato growers and other farmers getting subsidies. Watkins said he favored taking away as many subsidies as possible, although subsidies for defense were all right if they were necessary. As for those farm subsidies, they could be justified by the country’s need for food. ”32 The June 1953 tribal resolution called for selection of a planning officer. The council met September 14 to elect a person to that new position, but the bia did not approve the selection, and the job was not filled.

Of 1,226 adult tribal members polled, 889 had finished the eighth grade, 328 had graduated from high school, and 9 had finished college. 14 Nor was the tribe organized for effective self-government. Most decisions were made by the General Council, composed of all adult tribal members. An advisory council handled business between General Council meetings, but it had no administrative functions or staff. It had won the right to approve the budget for tribal operations in 1934 and used that power to influence — and sometimes remove — bia managers.

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American Indian Nations from Termination to Restoration, 1953-2006 by Roberta Ulrich

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