By Guoyao Wu
Content material: Discovery and Chemistry of Amino Acids Definition and Nomenclature of AA Discovery of AA Chemical houses of AA Protein Digestion and Absorption of Peptides and Amino Acids type and content material of Protein in Diets Definitions of Digestion and Absorption Protein Digestion and Absorption of Peptides and AA in Monogastric Animals Protein Digestion and Absorption of Peptides and AA in Ruminants Synthesis of Amino Acids Synthesis of AA in Tissues and Cells of Animals together with people basic Pathways for Synthesis of AA in Animal Cells particular Pathways for Synthesis of AA in Animal Cells Pathways for Synthesis of AA in Microorganisms Synthesis of D-AA in Animal Cells and micro organism Conversion of D-AA to l-AA in Animal Cells and micro organism Degradation of Amino Acids basic features of AA Degradation in Animal Cells Pathways for Degradation of AA in Animal Cells Catabolism of D-AA in Animal Cells Catabolism of L-AA and D-AA in Microorganisms Synthesis and Catabolism of targeted Nitrogenous ingredients from Amino Acids construction of Dipeptides which include Histidine or Its Methylated Derivatives Synthesis and Degradation of GSH creation of Gly-Pro-Hydroxyproline Synthesis and Catabolism of Polyamines Synthesis and usage of Creatine Synthesis and Catabolism of L-Carnitine Synthesis and Catabolism of Purine and Pyrimidine Nucleotides Heme Synthesis and Catabolism Synthesis and Catabolism of Histamine Synthesis and Catabolism of Catecholamines, Thyroid Hormones, and Melanin Synthesis and Catabolism of Serotonin and Melatonin Synthesis and Catabolism of D-Glucosamine and Glycosaminoglycans Conjugation items for Excretion Synthesis of Urea and Uric Acid Ammonia construction and Toxicity in Animals Urea construction in Mammals Uric Acid Synthesis Comparisons among Uric Acid and Urea Synthesis Use of Isotopes for learning Amino Acid Metabolism easy ideas approximately Isotopes Interpretation of knowledge from Isotope Experiments power Pitfalls of Isotopic reports Protein Synthesis ancient views of Protein Synthesis Pathway Pathways of Protein Synthesis within the Cytoplasm and Mitochondria Biochemical features and importance of Protein Synthesis Measurements of Protein Synthesis Intracellular Protein Degradation historic views of Intracellular Protein Degradation Proteases (Peptidases) for Intracellular Protein Degradation Intracellular Proteolytic Pathways features and Physiological value of Intracellular Protein Degradation Measurements of Intracellular Protein Degradation rules of Amino Acid Metabolism simple innovations in Metabolism results of dietary and Physiological components on AA Metabolism Physiological capabilities of Amino Acids Roles of AA in Peptide Synthesis Roles of AA for Synthesis of Nonpeptide Molecules Regulatory Roles of AA in nutrition consumption, Nutrient Metabolism, and Gene Expression Roles for AA within the Immune reaction Use of AA in food, treatment, and overall healthiness Efficacy and protection of nutritional AA Supplementation Inborn error of Amino Acid Metabolism Inherited ailments due to issues of AA Metabolism remedy of Inborn blunders of AA Metabolism nutritional standards of Amino Acids old views of nutritional AA standards choice of AA requisites overview of nutritional Protein caliber Index
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Additional info for Amino acids : biochemistry and nutrition
Neptune discovered that small-intestinal (ileal) preparations from various animal species (guinea pigs, hamster, monkeys, rabbits, and rats) have high rates of glutamine oxidation. This began a new era of biochemical and nutritional research on glutamine in humans and other animals. Glycine (aminoacetic acid) was isolated from the acid hydrolysates of gelatin by the French chemist H. Braconnot in 1820. He found that this substance was as sweet as glucose. J. Mulder reported that glycine could also be obtained from gelatin and meat using alkaline hydrolysis with potassium hydroxide.
3). The solubility of AA generally increases in acidic or alkaline solutions as well at elevated temperatures. P. and M. Winitz. Chemistry of Amino Acids. 1961. New York. a Compared with the absence of salt. ↑, increase; ↓, decrease. , absolute ethanol). 6 g/100 mL at 20°C). The hydrochlorides of AA (both neutral and basic) are generally more soluble in water than the corresponding free AA. Most of the AA hydrochlorides are highly soluble in absolute ethanol. , arginine and lysine) are often used for their neutralization in water and in physiological solution.
0 in cytoplasm), the α-carboxylic acid and α-amino groups of α-AA are completely ionized to take the zwitterion form. In their ionized state, glutamic acid and aspartic acid are often referred to as glutamate and aspartate, respectively. Data on the pI values of AA help one understand the mechanisms responsible for: (1) buffering functions of AA, (2) acid–base balance in physiological fluids, (3) transport of AA by cells, (4) interorgan metabolism of AA, (5) AA antagonism and imbalance, (6) protein structure and function, and (7) intracellular trafficking and location.
Amino acids : biochemistry and nutrition by Guoyao Wu