By Loren T. Stuckenbruck
The general public worship of the risen Christ as depicted in John's Apocalypse at once contradicts the guiding angel's emphasis that merely God can be worshiped (Revelation 19:10; 22:8-9). In Angel Veneration and Christology, Loren Stuckenbruck explores this contradiction in mild of angel veneration in Early Judaism.
Stuckenbruck surveys a large choice of Jewish traditions concerning angelic worship and discovers proscriptions opposed to sacrificing to angels; prohibitions opposed to making photos of angels; rejections of the "two powers"; second-century Christian apologetic accusations in particular directed opposed to Jews; and, most significantly, the refusal culture, common in Jewish and Jewish-Christian writings, in which angelic messengers refuse the veneration of the seer and exhort the worship of God alone.
While proof for the perform of angel veneration among Jews of antiquity (Qumran, pseudepigraphal literature, and inscriptions from Asia Minor) doesn't provide the speedy history for the worship of Christ, Stuckenbruck demonstrates that the actual fact that safeguards to a monotheistic framework have been issued in any respect throws gentle at the Christian perform of worshiping Jesus. the way in which the Apocalypse adapts the refusal culture illuminates Revelation's declarations approximately and depictions of Jesus. even though the refusal culture itself purely safeguards the worship of God, Stuckenbruck lines how the culture has been break up in order that the angelophanic parts have been absorbed into the christophany. As Stuckenbruck exhibits, an angelomorphic Christology, shared by way of the writer of Revelation and its readers, features to maintain the author's monotheistic emphasis in addition to to stress Christ's superiority over the angels―setting the degree for the worship of the Lamb in a monotheistic framework that doesn't contradict the angelic directive to worship God by myself.
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Extra resources for Angel Veneration and Christology. A Study in Early Judaism and in the Christology of the Apocalypse of John
H. RICHARDS (Chico, CA: Scholars, 1982) 157-98. Scholarly Approaches to Christology construction writings has of reality. The in recent significance in the Apocalypse of this years been underscored among scholars to characterize of John dimension for by the 27 apocalyptic increasing reluctance the genre of "apocalypse" merely in terms of eschatology. Since this development affects our approach to the Apocalypse of John, i t bears further comment. Apocalyptic writings have frequently been characterized within an es- chatological framework.
4 1 We may See Ulrich W. MAUSER, "One God Alone: A Pillar of Biblical Theolo gy," PSB 12 (1991) 255-65, esp. pp. 257-60. Insofar as the existence of other divine beings is not excluded, this definition is termed "relative monothe ism" by A. SCHENKER "Der Monotheismus im ersten Gebot, die Stellung der Frau im Sabbatgebot und zwei Sachfragen zum Dekalog," FZPhTh 32 (1985 ) 329-30. , Manfred H. VOGEL, "Monotheism," in Encyclopaedia Judaica (Jerusalem: Keter, 1971) 12. 240-57, though HÜBNER retains "monotheism" when referring to theoretical reflection.
60 criterion for making i t , However one evaluates BULTMANN's judgment and his 6 1 his caricature arises from a question that contin ues to be vigorously debated, with implications for the Christology of the Apocalypse. This problem has been addressed on several (1) literary/source criticism, (2) redaction criticism, levels of analysis: and (3) the document in its present form. At the turn of the century, the interpretation of pseudepigraphal and New Testament writings often turned on the assumption that Jewish and Chris tian concepts could be clearly distinguished.
Angel Veneration and Christology. A Study in Early Judaism and in the Christology of the Apocalypse of John by Loren T. Stuckenbruck