By Kenneth M. Setton
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Additional info for Athens in the Middle Ages (Variorum reprints; CS41)
The settlement accurately reflected the overall military and economic balance of the two sides. Decline of the Teutonic Order State The Teutonic Order never recovered from its unsuccessful 1409–11 war against Poland, and its aggressive efforts to rebuild alienated its Prussian subjects, leading ultimately to revolt and unification with Poland. Destructive hostilities between the Teutonic Order and the Polish Kingdom continued for another fiftyfive years on a smaller scale. Polish forces ravaged the region again in 1414, 1422, and 1431–33.
She remained Orthodox in religion and gave up her right to be crowned queen of Poland in 1501. Conflicts with Russia continued. A Lithuanian parliament (seim) met several times to approve the choice of 34 T h e J ag i e l l o n i a n P e r i o d, 1 3 8 6 – 1 5 7 2 Aleksander as grand duke and ratify decisions by the ducal council. The parliament consisted of provincial officeholders selected by the duke and was dominated by some fifteen to twenty families. Decisions were made informally by a small inner cabinet of territorial officials and ministers which controlled the formal Ducal council composed of thirty-five bishops, territorial officers, ministers, and lesser officeholders.
Changing political procedures, Kazimierz encouraged local noble assemblies (dietines/ sejmiki) to elect delegates to meet at the same time as the large royal council of 28 T h e J ag i e l l o n i a n P e r i o d, 1 3 8 6 – 1 5 7 2 government officials and bishops, and he accorded those assemblies more power. In 1454, knights from Great Poland met King Kazimierz IV at their military encampment near Cerekwica and demanded concessions before they fought against the Teutonic Order. The king promised that he would not call a noble levy without the agreement of noble assemblies or impose new taxes.
Athens in the Middle Ages (Variorum reprints; CS41) by Kenneth M. Setton