By Michael Woodard
"This concise research of contemporary developments in black entrepreneurship (is) greater than only a company e-book, this can be an affecting, inspiring booklet for any nascent entrepreneur".
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Extra resources for Black entrepreneurs in America: stories of struggle and success
To my mentors, William Julius Wilson and Teresa Sullivan. To Cherry Virginia Gillis, with whom in high school I discovered the power of words and the joy of writing. To future entrepreneurs. May your path be lighted by this book. Page vii CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ix PART 1 The Origin of Successful Black Businesses in America 1 Economic Rights 3 2 The Impact of Civil Rights 25 3 An Indigenous Frame of Reference 39 PART 2 The Life Stories of Enterpreneurs 4 Starting a Business THE EAST REGION 51 5 Gaining Access to Capital THE CENTRAL REGION 101 6 Community Involvement THE WEST REGION 157 PART 3 The Outlook for Black Business Development 7 The Future 215 BIBLIOGRAPHY 243 INDEX 247 Page ix ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This book was written to tell the neglected story of African American entrepreneurs in the post-Civil Rights era.
Washington was mistaken. The southern system of caste segregation applied exclusively to African Americans. Segregation laws restricted blacks from competing against any other entrepreneur in an open market. On the other hand, Chinese, Mexican, Jewish, and Native Americans could operate a business in the open market, drink at public fountains, eat in restaurants, and sleep in hotels. The intent of the caste system was to deny African Americans social and political rights and privileges, and to strangle their economic rights and opportunities.
How social climate affects black business development mirrors the potential of entrepreneurship to impel individual mobility and community development when the playing field is level. It is difficult to pinpoint when blacks in America first engaged in private enterprise. Most scholars ignore the fact that commerce and entrepreneurship were central to intergroup coexistence among slaves transported to the Americas from Africa. In fact, African Americans participated in the American economy as business owners even before the American Revolution.
Black entrepreneurs in America: stories of struggle and success by Michael Woodard