By Sukhdev Swami Handa, Suman Preet Singh Khanuja, Gennaro Longo, Dev Dutt Rakesh
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Additional resources for EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS
This greatly increases the viscosity of the water-charge mixture, thereby allowing it to char. Consequently, before any field distillation is done, a small-scale water distillation in glassware should be performed to observe whether any changes take place during the distillation process. From this laboratory trial, the yield of oil from a known weight of the plant material can be determined. The laboratory apparatus recommended for trial distillations is the Clevenger system (Figure 7). During water distillation, all parts of the plant charge must be kept in motion by boiling water; this is possible when the distillation material is charged loosely and remains loose in the boiling water.
Regarding the rose, half-open flowers with plump anthers give higher oil yield than fully opened flowers with shrivelled anthers. Humidity, wind, rain and surface temperature also affect the oil yield considerably. Harvesting schedule affects both quantity and quality of the oil. 2 Essential Oil Constituents Major constituents of essential oils are shown in Figure 5, from which it is clear that most essential oils consist of hydrocarbons, esters, terpenes, lactones, phenols, aldehydes, acids, alcohols, ketones, and esters.
This sort of arrangement can be incorporated in single percolators or in a battery of percolators as needed. The percolators that are tall cylindrical towers must be housed in sheds of relatively great height. Tall towers are difficult to operate, especially when charging material and discharging the marc from the top and bottom manholes, which are time-consuming and labor-intensive procedures. 5. These extractors have perforated baskets in which the material to be extracted is charged. These perforated baskets, when loaded outside, can be inserted into the extractor with a chain pulley block and, after the extraction, they can be lifted out from the extractor for discharging the marc.
EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS by Sukhdev Swami Handa, Suman Preet Singh Khanuja, Gennaro Longo, Dev Dutt Rakesh