New PDF release: Renewable Energy Desalination : An Emerging Solution to

By World Bank, Bekele Debele Negewo

ISBN-10: 0821394576

ISBN-13: 9780821394571

The center East and North Africa (MENA) quarter is among the such a lot water under pressure areas on the earth. Water shortage has already turn into a problem to improvement in lots of of the nations. because of expanding inhabitants and Projected weather swap affects, MENA’s annual water call for hole is projected to develop five-fold through 2050, from today’s forty two Km3 to two hundred km3 by means of 2050.Despite its severe shortage, water is controlled poorly. Inefficiencies are universal within the agriculture, municipal and commercial structures; and lots of utilities are financially unsustainable. therefore, nations overexploit their fossil aquifers—and use desalination by means of fossil fuel—to meet the water call for hole. Desalination already performs a serious function in MENA’s water offer portfolio. even if, desalination is expensive, strength extensive and has environmental affects. On present tendencies, the projection is that, through 2050, Saudi Arabia and plenty of different nations within the sector will eat for desalination many of the oil that they produce. Overexploitation of fossil aquifers isn't sustainable. nor is using fossil gasoline for desalination to fulfill the turning out to be water hole sustainable.This booklet outlines the demanding situations when it comes to water (and additionally by way of power) that nations within the zone face and analyzes the scope of accessible strategies to handle the transforming into water hole. The ebook estimates MENA’s water hole at the present time and into the future—until 2050; and provides a technique to prioritize concepts to bridge the water hole, utilizing the ‘marginal rate of water’ strategy. The publication additionally assesses the viability of renewable strength desalination as an immense choice to shut the Region’s water hole. The publication compares the industrial expense of desalination utilizing fossil gasoline and renewable power resources, specifically the focused solar energy (CSP). The ebook additionally presents strategies as to how CSP dependent desalination may perhaps make sure sustainable water provide for the zone.

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Additional info for Renewable Energy Desalination : An Emerging Solution to Close the Water Gap in the Middle East and North Africa

Example text

The principle was to use the least expensive water first and the most expensive water last. One obvious and important finding is that managing agricultural water demand, even if more difficult to plan and predict, could provide as much water as new desalination. The least expensive options to save water could come from improving agricultural cropping systems and trade, improving irrigation water use, and expanding reservoir capacity. 05 per m3. Reallocating water used in low-value irrigation to other uses would increase water supply by 24 km3.

Due to Germany’s adoption of a preferential feed-in-tariff policy for PV-based RE sources, significant improvements in PV technology and cost saving have been achieved. These great achievements have helped not only Germany but also other countries to access PV-based RE energy sources. Similar initiatives could be supported by other developed countries that have comparative advantage in terms of technology and resources, including institutional and human capacity, to achieve better results for the common good.

Pricing electricity or diesel fuel at the levels equivalent to cost not only would constrain the volumes pumped but also would induce farmers to regain profitability by growing high-value crops. However, even with realistic energy pricing, the cost of groundwater production does not represent its true value to the economy. Fossil groundwater is a finite and common pool resource that is being mined and, once gone, is irreplaceable. When farmers run out of fresh or moderately brackish groundwater, they typically have two choices: stop farming, or use an alternative resource.

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Renewable Energy Desalination : An Emerging Solution to Close the Water Gap in the Middle East and North Africa by World Bank, Bekele Debele Negewo

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